PDF meaning, definition, what is PDF: a way of storing computer files so that. PDF. From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Related topics. Longman English Dictionary is the leading dictionary for learners of English of all ages and levels who want to learn more about English: definitions, idioms. Download Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman. 2 Pages · Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English biosamnewbcropdic.tk .

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Download Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman Longman English grammar practice (Intermediate level) i L. G. Alexander. p. cm. 1. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Dictionaries. Upper Intermediate —. Proficiency. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 4th Edition. We have added more Longman dictionaries to download as iPhone/iPod touch applications, Longman Dictionary of , Words (Chinese Bilingual).

These would be the features which deserve more illustration than they are given at present. The dictionary explains what kind of linguistic assistance these labels in general offer but it would be more helpful if examples were provided.

Furthermore, a close examination of words with these two labels indicates inconsistencies which may confuse students.

First, the two labels do not follow the convention of presentation used by the other labels in this dictionary. Other labels such as formal or technical appear in entries in italic form right after the grammatical information, for example, the words aggregate 1 and exalt carry the label formal.

For example, see the entries of feisty and narcissism below.

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Open image in new window A further check of other words in LDOCE6 indicates that such information given to words in fact already exists in LDOCE5, for example, in words like newfangled, obsessive 1, aggrandizement and complacent.

Based on the results of the several words under examination, LDOCE6 indeed has offered no change in this area other than the inclusion of the two labels on the label list in the front matter. Print errors also appear on page when the dictionary explains what Longman Communication is for. On the second column of the page, the dictionary cites the word acquire as an example see below. Open image in new window The first error is that if a word has three circles, according to LDCOE 6 on the same page, it belongs to the , not —, most frequent words.

Second, the word acquire is shown with three circles and a W3 label here but this contradicts information the same dictionary gives to the word in the word entry—two circles and a W2 see below.

Information on the word download, which is shown as the synonym of acquire, is also confusing. It was labeled with two circles on page but with three in the word entry of the dictionary [see below].

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As a feature under the spotlight in this new edition, such errors found in the illustration of LC are very conspicuous. Most of the issues discussed, however, should not affect the pedagogical value and overall lexicographic quality of the new edition; but from a dictionary use research perspective, how the dictionary is perceived by its target users is a cause for concern. The words chosen for examination are related to the course assessment which requires students to review academic journal articles and prepare a literature review on a certain topic.

In the course, students would have to tackle the following words: Action verbs—maintain, claim, contend, postulate and surmise. Content words from reading passages—hegemony, discourse, regime, nuanced, lampooning. The search results reveal LDOCE6 to be a quality piece of lexicographical work—with precise and clear definitions of the words in question. For example, the word nuanced is shown as a derivative in the noun entry of nuance.

Also, the Grammar notes given to the word claim1 affirm the value of such a new feature. They not only prompt users to be aware of register, but also the corresponding grammatical structure required see entry below. Open image in new window The extension of Longman to Longman has impacted two of the ten words under search; they are contend and discourse 1. The two words are now presented in red and given one circle, which implies they belong to the range of — most frequent words according to LDOCE6.

Given their frequent appearance in journal articles associated with students of the aforementioned disciplines, such change is fair and informative, and hence welcome to users. In addition to precise and clear definitions, all the ten words under search are given either labels to indicate their academic status with the insertion of the label AWL or formal , or circles to show their relative high frequency of use LC ; and such features help students to be better-informed in vocabulary learning and use.

Such additional features surely add value to an already high-quality lexicographical publication. References Akasu, K. Methods in dictionary criticism.

In The Bloomsbury Companion to Lexicography, ed. Jackson, 48— Google Scholar Bae, S. A course in dictionary use for Korean EFL teachers. Hillsdale: N. Ein Forschungstiberblick. In BOrner, W. Prozel3und Text, Lehren und Lernen.


Bochum: AKS-Verlag, pp. Research Insights for the Classroom.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Longman Language Activator.

Harlow: Longman, pp. This innovative dictionary of English was compiled by a large editorial staff from the Longman Group, aided by outside readers and advisors. The project was directed by Della Summers.

This dictionary groups words and phrases that are related in meaning. These items, defined and illustrated by examples, are grouped in "concepts" or "Key Words", listed on pages B l - B 4 of the Appendix. The Activator is similar to a thesaurus in that it groups words and phrases by ideas. An "Alphabetical Word List" runs throughout the Activator.

The words belonging to the List are highlighted by a gray line at the left margin of the page. This List consists of words and phrases treated under the Key Words. Interspersed in the List are Access Maps designed to help the reader decide which Key Word should be consulted.

For example, the Access Map at careless asks which meaning?

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The third possible meaning given is "not thinking before doing something", which refers the reader to the Key Word, think about. The Key Word entry indicated by a solid, gray circle begins with a Meaning Menu, listing the major senses of the Key Word. Thus, for the Key Word careless we find first a general definition "not doing things properly or safely and therefore making mistakes or causing danger". Then the Meaning Menu lists by number the various senses of the Key Word.

In the Meaning Menu for careless we find: 1 paying too little attention to what you are doing, so that you make mistakes and do things badly 2 taking too little care in situations that involve danger or risk, so that accidents happen 3 done or made in a careless way, etc. After the listing of the various senses of the Key Word, the dictionary proceeds to provide Numbered sections, each of which is devoted to a sense of the Key Word.

For meaning 1 of the Meaning Menu given above we find in Numbered section 1 a repetition of the sense listed in the Meaning Menu and then the Menu of words and phrases. This Menu lists closely related words or phrases: "careless, not take care, negligent, slack, lax, remiss". After the Menu of words and phrases comes the part of the Activator that resembles an ordinary, monolingual dictionary.

These words and phrases are defined and illustrated. First, careless, then not take care, then negligent, etc. Each of the words and phrases is supplied with a phonetic transcription reflecting Received Pronounciation, RP , grammatical information, and illustrative examples, often including collocations.

The Activator is to be welcomed by teachers and advanced learners of English and by lexicographers. It provides a storehouse of information for advanced learners of English who must encode their ideas. The Activator has been prepared carefully by capable lexicographers.Examples are apartment, what's up and a collect call, marked as American English;fiat, set somebody a test and be the right way round, marked as British English.

Deputy Chief Editor Edmund Weiner has written our release notes for this quarter, which investigate the different meanings of have, look, large, and late. This select, boxed material all consists of very useful information, but is somewhat limited in number of boxes and scope.

For example, see the entries of feisty and narcissism below. Oxford: Macmillan Education. How to say manual. As adverbs the difference between especially and specifically is that especially is lb in a special manner; specially while specifically is in a specific manner, applying to or naming a particular thing or things, expressly, explicitly.

However, some mistakes have crept in.

Read more. Google Scholar Bae, S.

ALFONZO from Huntington
Feel free to read my other articles. One of my extra-curricular activities is mixed martial arts. I do like reading comics positively.