This document is an American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard. It is not a specification. AWWA standards describe minimum requirements and do not . AWWA C/A Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast (PDF). Downloading: Allowed Max downloads:5 AWWA catalog no: STC_ Media Type. The ﬁrst edition of ANSI/AWWA C/A, Standard for Ductile-Iron Pipe for Water and Other Liquids, was issued in , and revisions Download pdf.
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Home; AWWA C/A Preview Secure PDF. ℹ Printed Edition + PDF; Immediate download; $; Add to Cart. installed Ductile Iron pipe will not fail because of corrosion. The Revisions of ANSI/AWWA C/A and ANSI/AWWA C/A include tables with. Download Brochure: Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings (AWWA Manual M41) – This manual provides both technical and general information to aid in the design.
B The District may require alternative coatings based on special conditions and the Corrosion Engineers recommendations. Additional coating requirements shall be shown on the drawings.
Materials for coating of pipe and fittings located above ground and in structures shall be in accordance Section Materials for coating buried mechanical joint and hardware shall be in accordance Section Concrete for thrust and anchor blocks shall be in accordance with Section Tracer wire materials shall be in accordance with Section and selected from the Approved Materials List. Do not permit trench water to enter the pipe. Do not place tools, clothing, or other materials in the pipe.
The Contractor shall maintain the interior of the pipe in a sanitary condition free from foreign materials. Any damage caused by flooding of the trench shall be the Contractors responsibility. Dewatering shall be performed by methods that will maintain a dry excavation, preservation of the final lines and grades and protection of all utilities. If flooding of the trench does occur, the Contractor shall immediately dewater and restore the trench.
Damaged or altered pipeline appurtenances or trench materials shall be repaired or replaced as directed by the Engineer.
Work inside pipelines shall not be undertaken until all the tests and safety provisions of the Code of Federal Regulations The Contractor shall furnish and install all pipe, specials, fittings, closure pieces, valves, supports, bolts, nuts, gaskets, jointing materials, and all other appurtenances as shown on the Approved Plans and as required to provide a complete and workable installation.
Install pipe in the trench as follows: A. Inspect each pipe and fitting before lowering the pipe or fitting into the trench. Inspect the interior and exterior protective coatings. Patch damaged areas in the field with material recommended by the protective coating manufacturer. Thoroughly clean the ends of the pipe.
Remove foreign matter and dirt from inside of the pipe and keep pipe clean during and after installation.
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Install pipe according to the manufacturer's approved order of installation. Lower the pipe onto the bedding at the proper lines and grades. The manufacturer's printed installation guide outlining the radius of curvature that can be negotiated with pipe sections of various lengths shall be followed, except they shall not exceed the deflections allowed in AWWA C according to joint type.
Combined deflections at rubber gasket or flexible coupling joints shall not exceed that recommended by the manufacturer.
The pipe shall have firm bearing along its full length, and bell holes shall be provided at each joint to permit visual inspection of the joint and prevent the pipe from being supported by the bell end or coupling. Pipe Assembly: i. Insert the spigot end into the bell or coupling to the proper insertion mark. Check that the elastomeric ring has not left the groove during assembly by passing a feeler gauge around the completed joint.
Normal spigot and socket joints do not allow direct metal to metal contact with all forces being transmitted through the elastomeric seal. They can consequently flex and allow some degree of rotation, allowing pipes to shift and relieve stresses imposed by soil movement. The corollary is that unrestrained spigot and socket joints transmit essentially no compression or tension along the axis of the pipe and little shear.
Any bends, tees or valves therefore require either a restrained joint or, more commonly, thrust blocks, which transmit the forces as compression into the surrounding soil. A large number of different socket and seals exist.
The most modern is the 'push-joint' or 'slip-joint', whereby the socket and rubber seal is designed to allow the pipe spigot to be, after lubrication, simply pushed into the socket. Push joints remain proprietary designs.
Also available are locking gasket systems. These locking gasket systems allow the pipe to be pushed together but do not allow the joint to come apart without using a special tool or torch on the gasket. The earliest spigot and socket cast iron pipes were jointed by filling the socket with a mixture of water, sand, iron filings and sal-ammoniac ammonium chloride. A gasket ring was pushed into the socket round the spigot to contain the mixture which was pounded into the socket with a caulking tool and then pointed off.
Cement-Line Ductile Iron Thickness Class
This took several weeks to set and produced a completely rigid joint. Such pipe systems are often to be seen in nineteenth century churches in the heating system.
Lifespan and corrosion[ edit ] In the late s, ductile iron pipe was introduced to the marketplace, featuring higher strength and similar corrosion resistance compared to cast iron. Unprotected pipes in highly corrosive soil tend to have shorter lifespans. The only environment for which the analysis found the polyethylene sleeving did not provide effective corrosion control was for "uniquely severe" environments, a classification of a rare but extremely corrosive environment.
The analysis found that a lifespan of 37 years could be expected in these "uniquely severe" environments. In instances of more aggressive soils, polyethylene sleeving is installed over the zinc coated pipe to provide added protection. Mixed results have been found for all methods of protection.
However, this may be due to the impact of variations in local soil corrosiveness and temperature or by damage occurring during installation, which can impact effectiveness of protective coatings. However, even where pipe material loss and consequently pipe wall reduction is slow, the deposition of corrosion products on the internal pipe wall can reduce the effective internal diameter.
A variety of linings are available to reduce or eliminate corrosion, including cement mortar, polyurethane and polyethylene.
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Of these, cement mortar lining is by far the most common. Main article: Polyurethane Polyurethane is an option offered as an internal lining for ductile iron pipes in lieu of cement mortar. However, as PUR provides only passive protection it becomes vitally important that the coating is not damaged during handling and installation.
Manufacturers will specify strict handling, transport and installation procedures to ensure PUR coatings are protected. If pipes are deformed Polyurethane's elasticity, does in some situations allow the coating to remain intact. Corrosion Experts Polyurethane coatings were first used in Polyurethane is a thermosetting plastic with no solvents, with a three-dimensionally linked molecular structure giving it mechanical stability. The polyurethane lining used for internal coating has the following standard properties is standardised by EN Ductile iron pipes, fittings and accessories - Internal polyurethane lining for pipes and fittings - Requirements and test methods.
Main article: Cement-mortar lined ductile iron pipe The predominant form of lining for water applications is cement mortar centrifugally applied during manufacturing.
The cement mortar comprises a mixture of cement and sand to a ratio of between and For potable water, portland cement is used; for sewage it is common to use sulfate resisting or high alumina cement.
Cement mortar linings have been found to dramatically reduce internal corrosion. A DIPRA survey has demonstrated that the Hazen-Williams factor of cement lining remains between and with only slight reduction with age. External coatings[ edit ] Unprotected ductile iron, similarly to cast iron, is intrinsically resistant to corrosion in most, although not all, soils.Journal American Water Works Association. A flanged joint is rigid and can bear both tension and compression as well as a limited degree of shear and bending.
Debris or protrusions in the pipeline can damage a seal or rupture inflatable plugs. Product Downloads. The earliest spigot and socket cast iron pipes were jointed by filling the socket with a mixture of water, sand, iron filings and sal-ammoniac ammonium chloride.
If flooding of the trench does occur, the Contractor shall immediately dewater and restore the trench.
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